The Multi-Sensed Fulfillment of Jeremiah 31:31-34
Having observed the multi-sensed application of the Branch (the conditionally historical and exclusively future applications), we are prepared to look upon Jeremiah 31:31-34. The meaning of Jeremiah’s prophecy is multi-sensed, but the distinctive times of the contrasting applications are not the same as the Branch. Meaning, the Branch is the Covenant Maker, but Jeremiah’s prophecy (Jeremiah 31:31-34) details the special content of the Covenant agreement itself. Contextually, and undoubtedly, the time of this prophecy is to be fulfilled at the regathering of the Jews in the Restoration Generation, as demonstrated by Jeremiah 31:6-14, 16-17, 21-28, but the Covenant being spoken for is only divinely possible through the ultimate and complete embodiment of the Branch, the Covenant Maker, who we know to be Jesus of Nazareth. A clear reference point to the times of Jesus in Jeremiah 31:15 (Matt. 2:18), an event that took place long after the Restoration Generation, signals when this Covenant would ultimately become reality in and through Christ.
This being the case, however, this passage is notoriously misunderstood because it is widely regarded as single-sensed instead of multi-sensed. Sadly, the time period of the 1st Restoration Generation is almost altogether ignored and passed over by nonsensical interpreters. So, what is the prominent single-sensed interpretation? A shallow study of Hebrews 8:6-13 and Hebrews 10:16-17 promotes the popular misconception that Jeremiah 31:31-34 is entirely fulfilled in the saints of the Gentile Church Age (a generation that exists in the fallout of a failed 2nd Restoration Generation). No doubt, this Covenant has begun in the Christians of the Gentile Church Age, seeing that Jeremiah 31:31-34 is quoted in application to Christians by the writer of Hebrews in those passages, but this beginning is an inferior fulfillment of the Covenant. All things considered, the Jeremiah 31:31-34 Covenant was originally intended for the Jews of the 1st & 2nd Restoration Generations, and seeing that these generations have come and gone (coming short of the promises; Heb. 4:1), there must be another Restoration Generation of the Jews in the distant future wherein God will fulfill this Covenant in full (a 3rd Restoration Generation). The prophecies have been recasted to the future, remember! Hence, all possible fulfillments of Jeremiah 31:31-34 in the Gentile Church Age are far short of what is ultimately foretold and soon-to-be accomplished in the literal physical regathered Jews of the Promised Land (Rom. 11:7-36). This point is easily demonstrated below in a careful study of the text verse by verse.
Inferior & Superior Fulfillments
When examining Jeremiah 31:31-34 carefully, being mindful of “the times” and “the people” to whom the Lord was giving promise to, we can see the double-sensed applications made of inferior and superior fulfillments. Jeremiah 31:31-34 is a template for how the prophets prophesied salvation in the coming days – with 1st and 2nd Advent promises that are double-sensed and sometimes triple-sensed. The promises that pertain to the 1st Advent of Christ are fulfilled in the Gentile Church Age, while the promises that pertain to the 2nd Advent of Christ pertain to the restitution of all things in the salvation and glorification of the Jews. This can be proven in a verse-by-verse study of the inspired text.
Speaking to the Gentiles, I say, you do err my beloved brethren when you do not consider the whole context of Jeremiah 31 and 32. “We”, the saints of the Gentile Church Age, are NOT the exclusive recipients of the promises in Jeremiah chapter 31 & chapter 32. The Gentile Church is not the “original audience” (in one sense) to whom the prophet declares these promises. Therefore, in reality, the Gentile Church is mysteriously included in the promises of Jeremiah 31 and 32. And because the promises were not spoken exclusively or entirely for us, every statement within Jeremiah 31:31-34 is not performed or fulfilled in us, in the Gentile Church Age. These promises were spoken to a people and time period beyond the one which does now exist (the Last Generation salvation of the Jews), and in the mystery of God’s unsearchable righteousness He has made Gentiles into Jews (thereby accomplishing our salvation), a thing which is a logical impossibility. In other words, the promises of Jeremiah 31 and 32 were spoken for and are committed to the Jews (the literal and physical Jews), and by the power of these promises “they” shall be finally saved (as the Abrahamic and Davidic Covenants prophesied, by the inheritances of the Promised Land through David’s eternal throne). [For more info, see “Final Salvation & Final Judgment”.]
In an effort to examine Jeremiah 31:31-34 to discover what is now, in the Gentile Church Age, and what is to come in the salvation of the Jews at the 2nd Advent of Christ and in the Millennial Reign, let’s go through the most impactful promises and prophecies in the totality of Chapter 31 & 32 so as to harmoniously contextualize Jeremiah 31:31-34.
“…I will break his yoke from off thy neck, and will burst thy bonds, and strangers shall NO MORE serve themselves of him” – Jer. 30:8
“NONE SHALL make him afraid” – Jer. 30:10
“At the same time, saith the LORD, will I be the God of ALL THE FAMILIES of Israel, and they shall be My people.” – Jer. 31:1
“…their soul shall be as a watered garden; and they shall not sorrow ANY MORE AT ALL.” – Jer. 31:12 [Rev. 21:3-5]
Jeremiah 30:1-10, 17-24 is fulfilled with superiority and entirety in the 2nd Advent because literal physical Israel is depicted regathering unto the Promised Land, inhabiting it forevermore because of “David their King” whom God has raised up as a Savior (Jer. 30:9) – and because of King David, thereby God is able to say, “NO MORE” and “NONE SHALL” (Jer. 30:8, 10)!
Jeremiah 31:1-14 is fulfilled with superiority and entirety in the 2nd Advent because according to Jer. 31:1, this is the time in which “ALL THE FAMILIES” of Israel will be saved, which means that the families of Israel which were formerly divided will then be unified into one nation under one king (an act known in prophecy to be performed at the 2nd Advent of Christ, seen in Ezek. 34:23-24, 37:15-28, & Hos. 1:11). The salvation of literal physical Israel is in view here, and therefore as further confirmation, God said, “I will build” (31:4), “and gather” (31:8), unto the location called “the height of Zion” (31:12). Apparently, this is the time when by regathering and regeneration, God said, “they shall not sorrow ANY MORE AT ALL” (Jer. 31:12), an experience which is impossible until the 2nd Advent (see Rev. 21:3-5).
“teach NO MORE”, “THEY ALL” & “remember their sin NO MORE” – Jer. 31:34
“If those ordinances depart from before Me, saith the LORD, then the seed of Israel also shall cease from being a nation before Me FOR EVER.” – Jer. 31:36
“…it shall not be plucked up, nor thrown down ANY MORE FOR EVER” – Jer. 31:40
Jeremiah 31:15-40 is fulfilled with inferiority and without entirety in the 1st Advent [according to Jer. 31:31-34, which is quoted and applied as a New Testament experience in Hebrews 8:8-12, 10:16-17, & 1 John 2:27], but with superiority and entirety in the 2nd Advent. Remembering all that was accounted in Jer. 31:1-14, it is clear that the prophecy gazes upon what will be accomplished by the 2nd Advent of Christ. Nevertheless, it is important to note that this prophecy forewarns of great suffering that will transpire before this glorious and climactic end at the 2nd Advent (a suffering that will partly be experienced in the 1st Advent according to Jer. 31:15 & Matt. 2:17). God confirms to physical literal Israel that “they shall come again” into the land of Israel at the time of the “END” (Jer. 31:16-17), even though they will suffer much pain and chastisement until then (Jer. 31:18-20). God said, “I shall bring again their captivity” (Jer. 31:23), “to build and to plant” (Jer. 31:28) - this time is the 2nd Advent of Christ, by necessity, here called “a new thing” (Jer. 31:22) and “a new Covenant” (Jer. 31:31) in which “THEY SHAL ALL KNOW ME” (Jer. 31:34), scripture states, because “ALL THE FAMILIES of Israel” are saved (Jer. 31:1), therefore it is possible that they do ALL know God, every one of them (Rom. 11:26)! Strikingly, only by the 2nd Advent is it possible that there is Land-wide, Nation-wide, and City-wide holiness and security without ceasing “FOR EVER” (Jer. 31:36-40), therefore by the 2nd Advent “the city shall be built to the LORD” (Jer. 31:38).
Jeremiah 32:1-15 is fulfilled with superiority and entirety in the 2nd Advent of Christ according to Jer. 32:15, which states, “Houses and fields and vineyards shall be possessed again in this land”.
Jeremiah 32:16-25 is an account depicting Jeremiah’s confusion of how this regathering and restoration of Israel could happen… giving platform for the glory of God in the 2nd Advent.
“And I will make an EVERLASTING COVENANT with them, that I WILL NOT TURN AWAY from them, to do them good; but I will put My fear in their hearts, that they SHALL NOT DEPART from Me” – Jer. 32:40
“For thus saith the LORD; Like as I have brought all this great evil upon this people, so will I bring upon them ALL THE GOOD THAT I HAVE PROMISED THEM.” – Jer. 32:42
Jeremiah 32:26-44 is fulfilled with inferiority and without entirety in the 1st Advent [even though any potential application has not been specified or cited by inspired writers], but, of course, the prophecy is fulfilled with superiority and entirety in the 2nd Advent. “I will gather them”, God said (Jer. 32:37), by fulfilling “ALL THE GOOD THAT I HAVE PROMISED THEM” (Jer. 31:42), which is, namely, the “restitution of all things” (Acts 2:21) accomplished by the 2nd Advent of Christ - thus with the resurrection accomplished God will never “TURN AWAY” from Israel nor will they “DEPART” from Him (Jer. 32:40), because repentances in God are abolished (Hos. 13:14, Jer. 32:41)! In this way, specifically, God “will cause their captivity to return” (Jer. 32:44)!